Category Archives: Uncategorized

Bermudagrass Decline

Bermudagrass decline is characterized by gradual thinning or outright loss of bermudagrass stands over time. Below are some of the reasons associated with bermudagrass decline: 1. Fertility: The lack of an appropriate fertility program may be the number one cause of bermudagrass decline. Nitrogen (N) is important for forage production, however, it is often the only nutrient applied. Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) are critical for forage production and persistence. Potassium (K) has been shown to be an important nutrient for forage, stolon and rhizome production. It is… Read More →

Upcoming Web Based Learning Opportunities

Missing those face-to-face meetings? Texas A&M AgriLife Extension is offering web-based opportunities to continue to provide educational information on agriculture, including forage production. Below are some upcoming events you may be interested in… AgriLife Extension Events Calendar 2020 Ag in the Evening Program Series July & August Ranchers Agricultural Leasing Workshop 2020 Landowner 101 Workshop Series Texas Range Webinars Texas A&M Virtual Beef Cattle Short Course Winter Feeding with Stockpiled Forage and Winter Pasture Virtual   Check with your local County Extension Agent for other opportunities. Are you… Read More →

Weed of the Week: Hemp Dogbane

WEED OF THE WEEK: Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum L.) Hemp dogbane is an erect, one to three feet tall perennial. It grows from woody horizontal rootstocks. Leaves are smooth, elliptical, narrow and erect. Flowers are small with five greenish-white petals. Leaves and stems have a milky sap. Seed pods are long and slender. Hemp dogbane plants produce from 800-12,000 seeds per plant. Each plant usually has 10 to 60 seed pods and each pod contains between 80-200 seeds.Hemp dogbane is very competitive. It can reduce forage yields if not… Read More →


There are about 150 species of grasshoppers in the state of Texas, but 90% of the damage to crops, gardens, trees, and pastures is caused by just 5 species. Grasshoppers deposit their eggs 1/2 to 2 inches below the soil surface in pod-like structures. Each egg pod consists of 20 to 120 eggs. Egg pods are very resistant to cold and can easily survive the winter if the soil is not disturbed. Grasshoppers deposit eggs in fallow fields, ditches, fencerows, and weedy areas, as well as in crop… Read More →

Weed of the Week: Carolina Horse Nettle

Carolina Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) A warm season perennial, Carolina horse nettle can grow to 2 feet tall. It has dark green leaves that are sharply lobed with a pointed tip. Carolina horse nettle has large spines on the stems and leaves. Each of its mostly oval leaves has several teeth or shallow lobes on both sides. Horse nettle has clusters of white to purple flowers and they bloom May to October. Horse nettle also produces a fruit that is about 1/2 inch in diameter; it is green with… Read More →

Weed of the Week: Bahiagrass

Weed of the Week: Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) Bahiagrass is a warm season perennial that grows in Texas. Bahiagrass spreads by J-shaped purplish rhizomes and seed. The seed head consists of two or three spikes. Bahiagrass can be very aggressive and take over quickly especially in areas where competition is weak. Bahiagrass is very tolerant of low fertility and soil acidity.   Bahiagrass can be utilized for grazing. Some of it’s attractions for producers include its excellent adaptation, ease of management, persistence under low fertilization and close grazing. Bahiagrass… Read More →

Sprayer Calibration

Sprayer Calibration is a critical step for a pesticide applicator in making sure the correct amount of pesticide is applied to the target site. Calibration is the process by which the amount of pesticide being applied per a unit of area is determined. This step is most often skipped because we get in a hurry, we calibrated it once a long time ago (surely nothing has changed) or we forget. By skipping sprayer calibration the applicator may be applying too much pesticide or not enough pesticide. If too little… Read More →

Nitrogen Sources

Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient. Plants readily take up and use two forms of soil nitrogen, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Other forms of nitrogen must be converted to one of these compounds before plants can utilize them directly for plant growth. Sources of Nitrogen: Plants such as legumes “make their own” nitrogen. A symbiotic (positive for both parties) relationship between a legume and rhizobium bacteria develops and the bacteria “fix” nitrogen out of the atmosphere and convert the nitrogen gas into forms that can be used… Read More →

Bermudagrass Stem Maggot

The bermudagrass stem maggot (Atherigona reversura), a pest of bermudagrass forage in Texas has been reported in multiple counties since 2012. The bermudagrass stem maggot is native to south Asia (from Japan westward to Pakistan) and was first reported in the United States in Georgia in 2010. This pest only infests bermudagrass and stargrass (Cynodon spp.). The fly (yellow with black head) lays its eggs within the stem of the bermudagrass plant. Once the egg hatches the larva, or maggot, (white with black head, 1/8” – 3/16” long)… Read More →

Weed of the Week: Broadleaf Marshelder

Broadleaf Marshedler (Iva annua L.) is a warm season annual in the Sunflower family. Also called broadleaf sump weed. The leaves are situated in pairs across from each other on the stem. Marshelder grows in wet, moist areas, disturbed areas, and roadsides. This plant germinates in the early spring in February or March. The flowers, which resemble those of the ragweed group, are inconspicuous. It flowers in later summer and fall. Select Herbicide Options: Weedmaster 2, 4-D GrazonNext HL Duracor Grazon P+D Milestone PastureGard Chaparral (for bermudagrass pastures,… Read More →