Cool Season Annual Forages: To Plant or Not To Plant…Now or Later?

Areas of Texas have received very little rainfall since July. As we begin the month of October many of us are questioning whether to plant cool season annual forages (such as ryegrass, small grains or legumes). According to NOAA (, for a majority of Texas we have an equal chance of being drier than normal or wetter than normal for October 2019- December 2019. It will rain again one day. However, for many of us that hope is not enough as we look at the cost associated with planting.Cattle Grazing Winter Forages


Ideally we would like to plant to soil moisture. Summer pastures should be overseeded in October and early November depending on location. Delaying planting may give us an opportunity to plant to soil moisture depending on rainfall. Delaying planting too late (late November or December) will decrease overall forage production as well as result in a shorter grazing period.


If  we do have adequate moisture this winter be prepared to manage any winter forages planted, especially those overseeded into existing warm season perennial sods (bermudagrass, bahiagrass, etc). Late (April/May) ryegrass or legume forage production can slow down the spring recovery of our warm season perennial grasses. Be prepared to increase stocking rate or harvest excess forage at that time to allow for warm season perennials to break dormancy.


For information on cool season annual forage options as well as planting methods please review the following publications:

Establishing Cool-Season Annual Grasses

Cool-Season Forage Legume Management Guide

Annual Winter Pasture Establishment Management



Vanessa Corriher-Olson, Ph.D.

Forage Extension Specialist

Texas A&M Agrilife Extension

Soil & Crop Sciences Department

Overton, TX


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